Volume 1, Issue 2 (October 2016)

Original research papers

Biomedical Engineering


Daniel Adjei, Anna Wiechec, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek, Andrzej Bartnik, Ladislav Pina, Henryk Fiedorowicz

Pages: 88-94

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.016

Received: 5 MAY 2015, Received revised: 22 MAY 2015, Accepted: 29 MAY 2015, Published Online: 18 OCT 2016

A compact desk-top laser-produced plasma source of soft X-rays for radiobiology research is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target and delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays in the “water window” spectral range at a fluence of about 4.23´103 photon/µm2 per pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum source chamber and about 2.60´102 photon/µm2 per pulse on a wet sample located outside the chamber in the He- environment. The source has been used to irradiate pBR322 plasmid DNA both in vacuum and the He-environment conditions. Single and double strand breaks were quantified by gel electrophoresis. The number of strand breaks increased with the increasing dose of the “water window” soft X-rays. The strand breaks of plasmid solution irradiated in helium condition may be associated with damage from water-free radicals.
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Radiation in Medicine


V.N. Panteleev, A.E. Barzakh, L.Kh. Batist, D.V. Fedorov, A.M. Filatova, V.S. Ivanov, F.V. Moroz, P.L. Molkanov, S.Yu. Orlov, Yu.M. Volkov

Pages: 95-100

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.017

Received: 3 MAR 2015, Accepted: 4 MAY 2015, Published Online: 18 OCT 2016

Presently, the cyclotrons are playing a very important role in the production of radionuclides for medicine, which are very safe and reliable installations. From radioisotopes produced with cyclotrons, it is rather easy to select one that has appropriate nuclear-physical characteristics for medical use, in comparison to the ones produced with reactors. At PNPI, a high current cyclotron C-80 with the energy of extracted proton beam of 40-80 MeV and the current up to 200 μA is under construction. One of the main goals of C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. At present time, a project is worked out for the construction of radioisotope complex RIC-80 (Radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80. In the presented submission, the project of RIC-80 complex is discussed, which includes three target stations for the production of a large set of radionuclides for medicine. The peculiarity of the proposed radioisotope facility is the use of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device as one of the target stations for on-line, or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes. The first results on the target development for production of different medical radionuclides, including radioisotope generator for PET diagnostics 82Sr, are presented as well.
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Gabriela Ciobanu, Ana Maria Bargan, Constantin Luca, Octavian Ciobanu

Pages: 101-104

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.018

Received: 14 MAR 2015, Received revised: 7 APR 2015, Accepted: 13 APR 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

This study relates to a new apatite material which is biocompatible and exhibits radio-opacity, enhancing its utility in the dental and medical fields. The bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite was obtained by means of wet chemical method, that is, by co-precipitation reactions. The effects of the bismuth substitution for calcium on the morphology and optical proprieties of the resulting powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite is radio-opaque, and it can be detected by X-rays and computed tomography.
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Ivanka Antović, Nikola Svrkota, Dalibor Stojanović, Mirzeta Hadžibrahimović, Ranka Žižić, Gordana Laštovička-Medin

Pages: 105-110

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.019

Received: 18 FEB 2015, Accepted: 5 JUN 2015, Published Online: 18 OCT 2016

Soil samples from Novi Pazar (Serbia) and Rožaje (Montenegro) were analyzed by the ORTEC HPGe detectors with relative efficiencies of 35 and 40 % for radioactivity of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac, 40K and 137Cs. An average radioisotope activity concentration for Novi Pazar soil was found to be 27.6, 49.5, 585 and 14.9 Bq/kg, respectively; while in Rožaje, 137Cs activity concentration was found to be significantly higher – from 33.9 to 322 Bq/kg. The obtained results were used to estimate hazard indices, such as radium equivalent activity (none of the localities showed a radium equivalent activity higher than 370 Bq/kg) and annual gonadal dose equivalent to natural radioisotopes, as well as external terrestrial gamma absorbed dose rate of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac, 40K and 137Cs, and corresponding annual effective dose – used to evaluate excess lifetime cancer risk (then compared with the world average of 0.2×10-3, taking into account external terrestrial radiation – outdoor, i.e., average annual effective dose of 0.07 mSv). Vegetation samples from Rožaje – blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) showed 226Ra activity – 4.03, 1.1 and 0.99 Bq/kg, respectively; 232Th/228Ac – 4.5, <1.22 and 2.89 Bq/kg, respectively; 40K – 152, 98.4 and 79.3 Bq/kg, respectively; 137Cs – 3.05, 3.54 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively; whilst in Pinus sylvestris from Novi Pazar, they were – 2.7, 2.11, 163, <0.34 Bq/kg, respectively. Soil-plant radioisotope transfer factors were also estimated, and compared with typical ranges given in the UNSCEAR 2008 report. Since the most important radiation source for all terrestrial biota is the activity from soil, the dose rates are also evaluated using known internal (and external – in soil) radioisotope activity concentrations, as well as corresponding the dose conversion coefficients for external and internal exposure to particular radioisotope.
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A.Ye. Kaglyan, D.I., Gudkov, V.G. Klenus , L.P. Yurchuk , A.B. Nazarov, N.A. Pomortseva, Z.O. Shirokaya, N.L. Shevtsova

Pages: 111-114

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.020

Received: 1 MAR 2015, Received revised: 8 MAY 2015, Accepted: 15 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

The results of studies during 2006-2013 of fish from 12 water bodies with different hydrological mode and levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone are presented. The specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs for 17 species of fish, concerning various ecological groups was estimated. The fish of stagnant water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone continue to be characterized by the high concentration of 90Sr and 137Cs. Radionuclide specific activity in fish of closed water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during our studies in all cases exceeded maximal permissible levels, according to the standards, accepted in Ukraine for fish production: in 53-2892 times on 90Sr and in 6-212 times on 137Cs. In fish of the riverbed sites of the Pripyat River within the Chernobyl exclusion zone some single cases which exceeded the maximal permissible level on 137Cs, mainly the predatory fish, were registered. The analysis of radionuclide specific activity data in fish of various size, weight and age groups on an example of the common rudd and the European perch from Glubokoye Lake has allowed the revelation of a dependence of 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation on the weight of body and the age of fishes.
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D. Ganzha, Ch. Ganzha, A. Nazarov, B. Sploshnoi

Pages: 115-120

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.021

Received: 16 MAR2015, Received revised: 15 MAY 2015, Accepted: 22 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

We compared the methods of sampling and analysis of radionuclide concentrations in samples of common reed in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone. Selection and analysis of samples were generated using two methods. The first one is consistent with the current regulations, which allow selection and analysis of the whole plant of common reed and calculations of radionuclide concentrations in relation to the wet sample's weight. The second method, adopted in applied ecology, directs the selection of individual plant organs and the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in relation to the weight of the dry sample. It has been established experimentally that when applying the second observation method, the statistical uncertainty of measurement is 2.5 times smaller, which makes this method more suitable for radiological control and monitoring.
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Anastasija Moisejenkova, Milda Pečiulienė, Dainius Jasaitis

Pages: 121-127

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.022

Received: 17 MAR 2015, Received revised: 20 APR 2015, Accepted: 27 APR 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

The present work analyses the problem of radiocesium contamination of water bodies. The main object of research is the dynamics of radiocesium in water and bottom sediments of three Lithuanian lakes: Tapeliai, Juodis and Lydekinis. Lake Tapeliai basin is of the glacier origin and has bottom sources. Lake Juodis is a running shallow lake with a thick layer of bottom sediments (over 7 m). Lake Lydekinis is a small humic lake with highly colored water. Sediments and water samples were analyzed for 137Cs using a γ-spectrometric system. Investigation results deepen our knowledge on the processes of lake self-cleaning from anthropogenic pollutants and allow predicting the terms of super warm lake remediation after radioactive impacts. Estimating radioecological consequences of the radioactive impact to the natural water bodies, meromictic lakes are suggested as critical objects.
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E.D. Marčiulionienė, O. Jefanova, V. Sakalauskas, O. Sevriukova

Pages: 128-131

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.023

Received: 24 MAR 2015, Received revised: 22 MAY 2015, Accepted: 29 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

In the present study, we investigated the accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in compartments of the Nitellopsis obtusa cells. The effect of Sr2+, Cs+ and Ca2+, K+, which are chemical analogues of 90Sr and 137Cs, to the bioelectric parameters of these algae were studied simultaneously. The aim of this work was studying the penetration of 137Cs and 90Sr through regulating membrane barriers in the cells of starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa). 137Cs and 90Sr are accumulated mainly in the cell membrane (75% to 92%) of these algae. The cell membrane as a cation exchanger regulates ion flow through the first cells diffusion barrier – its thick outer cytomembrane (the complex consisting of the cell wall and plasmalemma). Significantly, smaller amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr enter into the cytoplasm than in the cytomembrane, 10-20% and 3-10%, respectively. Analysis of the accumulation levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in the compartments of the Nitellopsis obtusa cells show their accumulation in the cell membrane as well as their active transport through outer and inner cytoplasmic membranes. Membrane potentials determined mainly by the gradient of the K+ ions are doing an important regulatory function in this process. From the obtained data it results that cells of Nitellopsis obtusa algae can be a convenient radioecological model for the study of the accumulation of radionuclides in plants at the cellular level.
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A.V. Zaitsevskii, Yu.A. Demidov, N.S. Mosyagin, L.V. Skripnikov, A.V. Titov

Pages: 132-137

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.024

Received: 17 MAR 2015, Received revised: 29 APR 2015, Accepted: 8 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

Our latest advances in studies of actinide and superheavy element (SHE) chemistry using the shape-consistent two-component small-core relativistic pseudopotential (RPP) method and two-component relativistic density functional theory (2c–RDFT) are summarized. The features of these elements, due to large relativistic effects, are emphasized. The RPP model, leaving for explicit correlation treatment with both valence and subvalence (outercore) electrons, accounts for the finite nuclear size and incorporates relativistic effects (including the bulk of Breit interactions), providing a good basis for attaining optimal accuracy/cost ratio in the cases of large and strongly interfering relativistic and correlation effects, intrinsic for the heavy-atom compounds. The RPP/2c–RDFT approach allows one to solve the outercore-valence many-electron problem with moderate computational expenses while using practically exhaustive basis sets, optimized for the case of large differences between nl(j=l+1/2) and nl(j=l-1/2) one-electron states. Because of the exceptional role of thermochromatography on gold in the experiments on the “chemical” identification of SHEs with atomic numbers Z ≥ 112, the main attention was paid to the description of the SHE – gold interactions. Adsorption energies of SHEs on a gold surface were estimated using the cluster model. Its reliability was improved by monitoring the charge distributions in the vicinity of the adsorption site, taking account of the effects of the relaxation of the cluster compatible with its embedding into the crystal. The resulting desorption energy estimates for elements 113 and 120 single atoms from gold surface are substantially lower than the previously reported values.
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Cristina Cherubini, Ornella Ursini

Pages: 138-142

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.025

Received: 13 MAR 2015, Received revised: 13 APR 2015, Accepted: 20 APR 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

Amino acids in meteorites were preserved from the action of high energy sources (cosmic rays and ultraviolet protons) by their collocation, at a depth of 20 m. At the same time, the presence of radioactive elements was the cause of amino acids’ degradation. The radioactive elements produced a total radiation dose of 14 MGy during the life of the Solar System (4.6x109 years). Aside from the amino acids’ degradation, radiations promoted a radioracemization process that was able to reduce the L-enantiomeric excess of amino acids. Our studies are aimed at identifying the radiation products formed in a solid state radiolysis using mass spectrometric techniques. Moreover, we are analyzing the radioracemization process at different irradiation conditions for proteinogenic and non proteinogenic amino acids. The amino acids show a relevant radiation and radioracemization resistance, especially the proteinaceous ones, such as leucine, valine and isoleucine. Some identified degradation pathways are significant due to their final products which can be considered precursors of more complex intermediates.
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Medical Imaging


L. Aslamova, N. Melenevska, E. Kulich, N. Miroshnichenko, S. Miroshnichenko

Pages: 143-146

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.026

Received: 2 APR 2015, Received revised: 22 MAY 2015, Accepted: 29 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

Annual chest screening in Ukraine is a needed diagnostic procedure due to high level of tuberculosis, and it essentially contributes to the collective effective dose. Particularly this problem is actual for stout patients, who receive a higher exposure dose during chest screening, compared to average patients. This is done to obtain X-ray images with proper visual contrast and accuracy. In the present study, the results obtained with the application of anti-scatter grid technique, common for clinical fluorography examination, were compared to results obtained by image processing, as an improving visual contrast method for stout patients. In the present study, image processing increased the contrast value of test-object in the range of 2.0-2.73 times without ED increase; image processing after signal filtration with anti-scatter grid demonstrated the increase of image contrast 3 times in average along with the ED increase in Bucky factor to the 3.1-3.2.
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Microwave, Laser, RF
and UV radiations


Andjelija Ž. Ilić, Saša Ćirković, Jasna L. Ristić-Djurović

Pages: 147-150

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.027

Received: 16 MAR 2015, Accepted: 8 MAY 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

Two-dimensional magnetic arrays have been proven useful as exposure setups for biomedical experiments with static magnetic fields. Different static magnetic field levels as well as vertical field gradients can be attained from these exposure setups by means of varying the geometrical parameters of an array and the type of magnetic material employed. Evaluation of obtainable field and gradient values has been conducted by varying one by one parameter. Several relevant parameters were chosen to represent the effects of input parameter changes on the magnetic flux density above the array. Calculations were conducted using the exact analytical expression.
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Microwave, Laser, RF
and UV radiations


A. Maes, R. Anthonissen, L. Verschaeve

Pages: 151-154

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.028

Received: 1 MAR 2015, Received revised: 7 APR 2015, Accepted: 14 APR 2015, Published online: 18 OCT 2016

There are a few publications in scientific journals suggesting that persons who are regularly exposed to ELF-magnetic fields (occupational, but also residential exposures) may be at risk for contracting Alzheimer’s disease. It should be noted that these reports are only pointing to a possible association but do not at present provide any proof of association. We have performed a number of preliminary in vitro laboratory investigations to explore the plausibility of such an association. Our investigations were based on similarities found in cells from Alzheimer disease patients and in cells exposed to extreme low frequency magnetic fields. We especially investigated genetic damage in C3A and SH-SY5Y cells exposed in vitro to 50 Hz magnetic fields (0-500 µT) using the cytome assay. We found an increased frequency of large micronuclei (suggesting a possible aneugenic effect) and increased frequency of nuclear buds (suggesting gene amplification). In this, our results may show some similarities with the observed micronuclei in blood and buccal cells of Alzheimer disease patients. The effects were found in both cell lines and were previously observed for exposure levels as low as 10 µT. This is however in contrast with earlier results obtained in human lymphocytes where no induction of micronuclei was found using the same exposure unit. The results thus need to be confirmed and further analyses need to be done.
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Stanislav Pavelka

Pages: 155-158

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.029

Received: 22 MAR 2015, Received revised: 11 MAY 2015, Accepted: 18 MAY 2015, Published Online: 18 OCT 2016

Recently, we have shown in the isolated rat thyroids marked effects of excessive exogenous bromide and perchlorate ions on the activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones (TH) metabolism. Here, we studied in more details, with the aid of several radioanalytical methods, the effects of an enhanced bromide and/or perchlorate intake on various aspects of iodine metabolism and, consequently, on TH metabolism in the rat. Goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide and perchlorate ions were followed in adult male rats, maintained on diets with various iodine content, ensuring either sufficient iodine supply or mild to severe iodine deficiency. In rats administered with these xenobiotics, we measured a consistent increase in relative weight of the thyroids with increasing time and concentration of applied bromide, and a sharp reduction of the 24-h uptake of [131I]-iodide by their thyroids. In these animals, we also determined a steady decline in serum total thyroxine concentration. At the molecular level, we found, unexpectedly, that the influence of exogenous bromide on the TPO enzyme activity in the rat thyroids was not simply inhibitory. It was more complex, biphasic with regard to the extent of bromide intake in the animals. With the use of several radioanalytical methods, including adapted radiometric determination of TPO enzyme activity, we therefore confirmed and quantified the presumed thyrotoxic effects of xenobiotics bromide and perchlorate ions.
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