Volume 2, Issue 1

Table of contents

Short notes



Željko Milosavljević, Nikola Krstić, Branislava Mitrović, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović

Pages: 62-64

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.013

Received: 23 FEB 2016, Received revised: 19 MAY 2016, Accepted: 23 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Studies of X-rays irradiation effects on biological systems are still meaningful and actual. The aim of present work was to examine the effects of pituitary gland irradiation on rats’ growth and development, and the impact of pituitary gland protection during cranial irradiation. During the experiment, rats were divided into three groups. Animals in the first group (control group) were not irradiated. In the second and third groups animals received cranial irradiation with 240 kV X-rays at doses of 27.92 Gy (n=10 per group), applied during 8 sessions, in the period from 8 to 63 days of age. In the second group, rats had the pituitary gland protection in the form of a lead plate set below the projection of the pituitary. Animals in the third group were irradiated without the lead plate protection of the pituitary gland. In second group with protected pituitary gland, no significantly harmful effects of radiation were observed in animals. After the cranial irradiation without pituitary gland protection (third group), animals showed significant retardation of physical growth which was manifested in the reduction of pituitary gland mass as in the body and tibial mass and length.
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  8. O. K. Milovanović and M. Demajo, “The pituitary content of somatotropin and prolactin in 25-month-old female rats with head region X-irradiated when 8 days old,” Iugoslav. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta, vol. 13, pp. 115-119, 1977.
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Environmental Chemistry


Marija Mihajlović, Jelena Petrović, Milan Kragović, Mirjana Stojanović, Jelena Milojković, Zorica Lopičić, Marija Koprivica

Pages: 65-67

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.014

Received: 11 MAR 2016, Received revised: 17 APR 2016, Accepted: 8 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Hydrothermal carbonization has been proven as one of the simplest and most efficient technologies to produce a variety of carbon-based hydrochars with various applications. Like other types of biochars, hydrochar has reactive, functionalized/aromatic surfaces. Those properties make hydrochar a potential low-cost adsorbent for water purification and soil remediation. In order to increase its ability to remove heavy metal contaminants from aqueous solutions, chemical modification/activation of hydrochar surface using KOH has been suggested. The presented FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of hydrochars obtained from grape pomace and miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus) showed that KOH modification increased the oxygen-containing functional groups on hydrochar surfaces and its aromaticity. As a result, activated hydrochars may demonstrate enhanced sorption efficiency.
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  7. S. Kumar, “Hydrothermal Treatment for Biofuels: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Bioethanol, Biocrude, and Biochar,” PhD Dissertation, Chemical Engineering. Auburn University, Auburn, 2010, pp. 258.
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  8. S. Kumar, U. Kothari, L. Kong, Y. Lee and R. Gupta, "Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres", Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, pp. 956-968, Feb. 2011.
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  13. P. Regmi, J. Moscoso, S. Kumar, X. Cao, J. Mao and G. Schafran, "Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process," J. Environ. Manage., vol. 109, pp. 61-69, Oct. 2012.
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  14. J. Petrović, N. Perišić, J. Dragišić Maksimović, V. Maksimović , M. Kragović, M. Stojanović, M. Laušević and M.Mihajlović, "Hydrothermal conversion of grape pomace: Detailed characterization of obtained hydrochar and liquid phase", J. of Anal. and Appl. Pyrol. vol. 118, pp. 267–277, Feb. 2016.
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  16. S. Hamid, Z. Chowdhury and S. Zain, "Base catalytic approach: a promising technique for the activation of biochar for equilibrium sorption studies of copper, Cu (II) ions in single solute system," Materials, vol. 7, pp. 2815-2832, Apr. 2014.
    DOI: 10.3390/ma7042815
Microwave, Laser, RF
and UV radiations


Zorica Podrascanin, Zoran Mijatovic, Ana Firanj Sremac

Pages: 68-70

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.015

Received: 27 FEB 2016, Received revised: 15 APR 2016, Accepted: 22 APR 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

We studied the trends of UV index in the city of Novi Sad (latitude 45.3N, longitude 19.8 E at the 80m height) in the 2004-2013 time period. The measurements of UV index were performed with the Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer. The linear regression method was used to calculate the trends of UV index. The yearly trend of UV index from the relative monthly differences considered with climatological value was investigated. We obtained the positive yearly UV trend of 7.9±1.7% per decade at the location of Novi Sad. Further on, the monthly UV trends were investigated. We obtained significant positive trends in April, August, October and December, with no significant negative UV trends.
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Microwave, Laser, RF
and UV radiations


Avni Berisha, Blerina Baxhaku, Nardi Sheqerxhiu, Ahmet Hoxha, Nimet Orqusha, Valbonë Mehmeti, Jeton Halili, Kaltrina Jusufi, Veprim Thaçi, Adelina Halili

Pages: 71-74

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.016

Received: 1 MAR 2016, Received revised: 26 APR 2016, Accepted: 3 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Alprazolam is a widely prescribed sedative and antidepressant benzodiazepine (BDZ) drug which belongs to the class of anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic anticonvulsants. It is believed that alprazolam (ALP) is more fairly safe and it rapidly reduces the symptoms of anxiety through the control of the central nervous system (CNS) excitability by a selective and potent enhancement of inhibitory gammaamino butyric acid (GABA) mediated neurotransmission. Accelerated photochemical stability of alprazolam was performed under several conditions. The study involved the evaluation of the photostability of Alprazolam in active mater, in PVC/Aluminum blister packet (BPT) or without blister packet tablets (WBPT). The evaluation of the stability was performed using special stability test chambers at 60% controlled humidity, temperature and UV irradiation. The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the content of the Alprazolam before and after UV irradiation. The obtained results for the short term photostability study do not show any significant degradation of this molecule by the UV irradiation in active mater and this holds true for the BPT or WBPT, independent of the Alprazolam content (0.25 or 0.50 mg).
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Original research papers



Ljudmila Lioshina, Olga Bulko, Sergii Litvinov, Svitlana Pchelovska, Darina Sokolova, Anastasiya Berestyanaya, Ludmila Tonkal, Anastasia Salivon

Pages: 1-4

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.001

Received: 16 MAR 2016, Received revised: 16 MAY 2016, Accepted: 19 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Digitalis purpurea L. is the source of a number of biologically active substances used for medical purposes. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed plants show changes in the secondary metabolism. The influence of acute exposure to ionizing radiation on the modification of the pigment system and accumulation of flavonoids in Ri-transformed regenerated plants in vitro was studied. A week after the exposure to the stressor, changes in the number of chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids were observed. A month later, the amount of carotenoids and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased, which indicated a decrease in the photosynthetic capacity of the irradiated plants. The synthesis of flavonoids was reduced as well. But in the second passage, we saw an increase in all the parameters studied in relation to the non-irradiated samples. It showed the development of a long-acting adaptive response of plants. A nonlinear dose dependence of acute X-ray irradiation influence on in vitro D. purpurea was shown. The transformed plants were found to be more resistant to the damaging effects of radiation. We reasoned that the exposure to ionizing radiation in a certain dose interval could be used to stimulate the accumulation of biologically active substances of in vitro D. purpurea.
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    DOI: 10.5772/24200
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    DOI: 10.3103/S009545271405003X
  7. D. Grodzinsky et al., “Effect of acute X-Ray irradiation of medicinal plants seeds to the secondary metabolites productivity,” presented at Forth International Conference on Radiation and Applications in Various. Fields of Research (RAD 2016), Niš, Serbia. May 23-27, 2016.
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A.G. Karapetyan

Pages: 5-9

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.002

Received: 8 MAR 2016, Received revised: 7 MAY 2016, Accepted: 12 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

The observation of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has shown that as time goes on, they have different pathological processes and chronic illnesses. Increased level of chromosome aberrations, immune and endocrine disorders, clastogene factors etc., requires active treatment and rehabilitation measures. We have studied the changes in the immune system of the liquidators in combination with the other vital systems of the organism activity and not in isolation. The condition of cell-mediated immunity was assessed based on the relative and absolute quantity of T- and B lymphocytes. The assessment of the humoral immunity condition was carried out by the estimation of Ig G, Ig A, Ig M class immunoglobulin concentration in the serum. Non-specific defense factors are the complement content in the serum and phagocytic activity of the neutrophils. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the help of such methods of system analysis as correlation, variance factor and cluster analysis. Making use of the method of the assessment of human immune system suggested by L.V. Kovalchuk and A. N. Cheredeev, based on the pathogenetic principle, we developed an algorithm of assessment of humoral component of immune system in case of immunodeficiency. In spite of the seemingly good condition of the immune system in the early post-accident period, which can be accounted for by adaptation mechanisms, in most cases (63.8%), a recurrence of inflammatory processes is observed, which is probably explained by the displacement of the immune system component provoked by radiation influence 20-25 years ago, with non-radiative factors connected with the way of life.
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Natalia Koltovaya, Alexandra Kokoreva, Natalia Shvaneva, Nadya Zhuchkina

Pages: 10-13

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.003

Received: 29 FEB 2016, Received revised: 29 APR 2016, Accepted: 8 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

To study the kinetics of UV-induced gene and chromosome mutations in the yeast S. cerevisiae, several genetic assays were used. We treated yeast cells with UV light of up to 130 J/m2. UV irradiation induced all types of base substitutions, although transitions — in particular, GC-AT events — were predominant. Frameshift mutations were induced at the same frequency as the base pair substitution GC-AT, while forward mutations in the CAN1 gene exceeded the more expressive base pair substitutions by about an order of magnitude. Chromosome mutations were the most efficient. The kinetic of the induced gene and chromosome mutations is represented by a linear-quadratic function. Such curves have been reported for UV mutagenesis in bacteria and they have been explained by the induction of SOS error-prone repair. Similar biphasic kinetics was described for yeast in our work. These data suggest the occurrence of several factors forming the mutagenic response of eukaryotic cells to UV light.
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Medical Physics


Kristina Bliznakova

Pages: 14-19

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.004

Received: 8 MAR 2016, Received revised: 13 APR 2016, Accepted: 8 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Physical test phantoms are valuable tools in the assessment of novel breast imaging techniques. It is important that they reproduce the breast characteristics as close as possible. This paper presents a methodology for the creation of a software breast phantom that produces a structured background in both two dimensional mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The phantom is composed of spherical objects different in size placed in a semi-cylindrical container. This software breast phantom is used to further improve the existing physical phantom in terms of use of other more appropriate materials or a structure presentation different than the use of spheres. For this purpose, a simulation platform that allows the creation of software versions of the physical phantom with parameters (sizes, shapes, materials) easily adjusted by the user, was developed. Besides the research aspects of the computational phantom, the software tool has turned out to be very useful application for the training of Medical Physics Experts. Specifically, the tool has been used in the training of the participants of module 5 “The use of physical and virtual anthropomorphic phantoms for image quality and patient dose optimization” from the EUTEMPE-RX project that is related to the qualification of Medical Physics Experts in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology.
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  4. K. Bliznakova, R. Speller, J. Horrocks, P. Liaparinos, Z. Kolitsi, N. Pallikarakis, “Experimental validation of a radiographic simulation code using breast phantom for X-ray imaging,” Comput. Biol. Med., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 208-214, 2010.
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  5. EUTEMPE-RX: European Training and Education for Medical Physics Experts in Radiology, in FP7 Fission-2013-5.1.1: EURATOM Fission Training Schemes (EFTS) in Nuclear Fission, Safety and Radiation Protection, Project Number: 605298, 01.08.2013 - 31.07.2016.
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Medical Physics


Firas Ghareeb, Sofia Silva, Joana Lencart, Fatima Borges, Joao A.M. Santos

Pages: 20-25

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.005

Received: 1 MAR 2016, Received revised: 30 APR 2016, Accepted: 8 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

A pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated using a standard 3DCRT treatment plan with and without including the couch in the Treatment Planning System (TPS; Varian Eclipse 13.5, AAA algorithm) calculations. The 2D scatter dose distributions at several planes away from the isocenter were measured using a Gafchromic EBT3 radiochromic film, and compared with the calculated ones at several distances from the isocenter. The out-of-field dose distributions (from TPS and EBT3) differ considerably, particularly where the cranio-caudal beam has left the body but is still near the surface of the phantom and near the couch interception. Further investigation was conducted to estimate the impact of the beam angle on the dose distribution. A 5x5 cm 6MV photon beam was used to irradiate a fiber carbon slab (couch top material) at different angles of incidence and the scattered radiation was measured with an ionization chamber placed 20 cm away from the isocenter. The results showed a 5% increase in scattered radiation between the angles of 00 and 850. This is an indication that scatter from the couch must be taken into account when estimating out-of-field dose distributions and that the TPS, even when the couch is included in the calculation, is not sufficiently accurate to predict these doses.
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Medical Imaging


Jelena Popović, Marija Daković Bjelaković, Jovanka Gašić, Milan Spasić, Marija Nikolić, Radomir Barac

Pages: 26-30

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.006

Received: 1 MAR 2016, Received revised: 28 APR 2016, Accepted: 11 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

The identification of the mental foramen is important for both diagnostic and clinical procedures. The knowledge about its accurate location is significant in reducing complications that may occur during surgical and endodontic treatments involving the mental area. The purpose of this study was to determine the position of mental foramen in relation to the radiographic apex of the mandibular second premolar on panoramic radiographs. Two hundred digital panoramic radiographs were analyzed in this study. Horizontal and vertical position of the mental foramen was determined in relation to the two reference lines which passed through the apex of the mandibular second premolar. The possible positions were: mesial below, mesial intersecting, mesial above, intersecting below, centered, intersecting above, distal below, distal intersecting and distal above. Fifty percent of the panoramic radiographs showed that the mental foramen position was mesial and below the radiographic apex of the second premolar. Mesial and intersecting position was observed in 21% of the radiographs, centered in 13%, intersecting and below in 8%, distal and below in 6%, while 2% of the radiographs showed distal and intersecting position of the mental foramen. No statistically significant differences in the position and the symmetry of the mental foramen were observed in relation to the gender and the side of the mandible. The most common position of the mental foramen was mesial and below the radiographic apex of the mandibular second premolar. For an accurate assessment of the location of the mental foramen, a preoperative radiological study with a panoramic radiograph is necessary.
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Radiation in Medicine


Jozef Sabol, Jana Hudzietzová, Bedřich Šesták

Pages: 31-34

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.007

Received: 29 FEB 2016, Received revised: 24 APR 2016, Accepted: 10 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

During the manipulation with radiopharmaceuticals, workers in nuclear medicine always receive certain exposure which is continuously monitored and strictly controlled by relevant national regulatory authorities. This exposure should be minimized following the ALARA principle and be at all times below prescribed limits or reference levels. The paper presents some results of the assessment of radiation doses of nuclear medicine personnel where special attention is paid to the exposure of the extremities and to the skin of hands in particular. It has been observed that the skin dose of some workers may exceed the relevant annual dose limit and therefore some measures should be adopted to reduce this exposure. The situation in the Czech Republic related to the radiation burden of workers in nuclear medicine is outlined and conclusions discussed.
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  2. International Commission on Radiological Protection. (2007). Publication 103: The 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection,
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    PMid: 19864524
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    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv441
    PMid: 26503855
  8. J. Hudzietzová et al., “The radiation exposure of workers` hands during the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a radionuclide 18F,Ces. Radiol, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 318 – 322, 2014.
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Environmental Chemistry


Julijana Velevska, Nace Stojanov, Margareta Pecovska - Gjorgjevich, Metodija Najdoski

Pages: 35-40

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.008

Received: 24 FEB 2016, Received revised: 19 APR 2016, Accepted: 25 APR 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

In this work, electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) and tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. The films have been deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Electrochromic behavior of each film was studied by cyclic voltammetry. An electrochromic test device (ECTD) was constructed by using WO3 as a working electrode, together with a PB film as an opposite (counter) electrode, and aqueous solution of 1 mol/dm3 KCl, slightly acidified with 2 drops of conc. HCl in 100 ml, as an electrolyte. The optical transmission spectra of the bleached and colored states were recorded in the visible part of the spectrum. The contrast ratio was calculated from these spectra. The coloration efficiency and the time response of the ECTD were also examined.
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Environmental Chemistry


Valbonë Mehmeti, Kurt Kalcher, Fetah Podvorica, Avni Berisha

Pages: 41-45

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.009

Received: 27 FEB 2016, Received revised: 19 APR 2016, Accepted: 25 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

The corrosion behavior of iron in 0.1M aqueous sulfuric acid medium has been studied in the presence and absence of: 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 2-mercaptonicotinic acid. Potentiodynamic measurements did not show any shift of corrosion potential toward a more negative potential indicating that these compounds mostly act as mixed inhibitors due to their adsorption on the iron surface. The adsorbed film of these molecules hinders the transport of the metal ions from the metal to the solution and also retards the hydrogen evolution reaction by acting as a physical barrier. The molecules were also studied with the density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP functional in order to determine the relationship between the molecular structure and the corrosion inhibition behavior.
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Dora Krezhova, Svetla Maneva, Nikolay Petrov, Irina Moskova

Pages: 46-52

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.010

Received: 3 MAR 2016, Received revised: 10 MAY 2016, Accepted: 14 MAY 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

Hyperspectral remote sensing provides for significant advancement in the evaluation of the subtle changes in biophysical and biochemical attributes of the crop plants. Accurate estimates of leaf pigments, nitrogen, dry matter, water content, and leaf area index (LAI) from remotely sensed data can assist in determining the vegetation physiological state. In this paper, hyperspectral remote sensing measurements of the leaf reflectance were applied for assessing the effect of biotic stress (viral infection) on the spectral behaviour and biophysical variables of young potato plants, cultivar Agata, infected with Potato Virus Y (PVY). Spectral reflectance data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (350-1100 nm) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 nm. For the assessment of differences between the reflectance data of healthy and infected plant ata processing techniques, such as Student’s t-test, first derivative analyses, and estimation of vegetation indices, were applied. The analyses were performed in green, red, red edge and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm) where the differences were the most significant and give information about changes in the chlorophyll and pigment content, moisture content, cells structures, and plant stress. Several vegetation indices (NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, fD - Disease Index, SR –Simple Ratio, TCARI - Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption Reflectance Index, etc.) were computed and the best results for assessing the changes in the physiological state of the plants gave TCARI. A strong relationship was found between the results of the spectral analyses and the serological test DAS-ELISA was applied to assess the presence and the degree of the PVY infection.
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Gabriela Ciobanu, Octavian Ciobanu

Pages: 53-57

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.011

Received: 27 FEB 2016, Received revised: 28 MAR 2016, Accepted: 1 APR 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

This study relates to a new biocement prepared from mixtures of Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate dihydrate using deionized water as liquid phase. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowder was produced by the co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4 and Bi(NO3)3·5H2O raw materials as calcium, phosphorous and bismuth sources. The XRD diffractograms of the cement powders indicate only hydroxyapatite and CaSO4 phases. This biocement exhibits radio-opacity, thus enhancing its utility in the dental and medical fields.
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Natalia Kamanina

Pages: 58-61

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.01.012

Received: 25 FEB 2016, Received revised: 15 APR 2016, Accepted: 20 APR 2016, Published online: 20 APR 2017

In the current paper, a unique role of the photorefractive features of the nano- and bio -doped organic systems has been considered as an indicator of the change of dynamic, structural, spectral and conductive characteristics. The paper presents some innovative views about the tendency towards the concurrent role of the bio-object sensitization of the organic matrixes in comparison with the nano-object doping one. The results have been supported both by the experimental four-wave mixing technique data as well as by the qualitative model.
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