Volume 3, Issue 2

Table of contents

Invited review paper

Radiation Protection


Kiril Krezhov, Tzvetana Nonova, Alexander Mladenov, Dobromir Dimitrov

Pages: 64-70

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.012

Received: 2 JUN 2018, Received revised: 22 NOV 2018, Accepted: 27 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

We report on the findings from the short- and long-term environmental monitoring in selected control points within the IRT-Sofia nuclear site, which is an important part of the radiation and radiological surveillance during the operation and maintenance of the facilities at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre (NSEEC) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy. Consideration is given to experimental evidence and analyses covering the last 8 years and the overlap issues with environmental data accumulated from 1961 to 2008 are commented upon.
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Topical review



Iva Slavova, Denitsa Kiradzhiyska, Rositsa Mancheva

Pages: 71-87

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.013

Received: 24 AUG 2018, Received revised: 10 DEC 2018, Accepted: 12 DEC 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The most common classification of certain biomaterials is proposed according to their nature, biological behavior, and application specificity. Data on the antibacterial activity of the metals Ag, Cu, Mg, Zn, Se, and Zr are summarized. A brief historical review of their use in the treatment of various infections has been made. The mechanisms of antibacterial action and the role of some implant surface modifications are discussed.
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Short note



Iurii Simirskii, Alexey Stepanov, Ilia Semin, Anatoly Volkovich

Pages: 88-90

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.014

Received: 17 MAY 2018, Received revised: 19 OCT 2018, Accepted: 18 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

In order to determine 14C in irradiated graphite, a method based on the oxidation of the graphite in the oxygen flow was used. This method makes it possible to visually monitor the end of the process and simultaneously separate 14C from 137Cs and 90Sr, which interfere with its determination. This method was used to analyze irradiated graphite samples from the research reactor RFT (NRC Kurchatov Institute) and the RBMK Leningrad nuclear power plant. The concentrations of 14C and 3H in the irradiated graphite of the reactor RFT were insignificant, except for those in the active zone. In this zone, the concentrations of 14C and 3H increased by more than two orders of magnitude up to 107 Bq/kg that corresponded to their activation nature. 137Cs and 90Sr are the main radionuclides contaminating the RFT reactor irradiated graphite that reveals their crash origin. In the RBMK Leningrad nuclear power plant, irradiated graphite was mainly contaminated with 14C, although fission products 137Cs and 90Sr also make a significant contribution.
  1. Iu. Simirskii, A. Stepanov, I. Semin, A. Volkovich, “Reactor RFT Graphite Stack Spectrometric Investigation,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Nuclear Fuel Cycle (GLOBAL 2017), Seoul, South Korea,2017, А-042.
  2. A. V. Stepanov, Yu. N. Simirskii, I. A. Semin, A. G. Volkovich, “Comprehensive Radiometric Investigation of MR Reactor Pool Water,”Atom. Energy vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 57 – 61, Nov. 2014.
    DOI: 10.1007/s10512-014-9888-y

Original research papers



S. A. Kulyukhin, V. V. Kulemin, V. B. Krapukhin, E.P. Krasavina, V.P. Gorbacheva, I.A. Rumer

Pages: 91-97

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.015

Received: 25 MAY 2018, Received revised: 15 NOV 2018, Accepted: 18 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The decomposition of uranyl nitrate in a matrix of large coarse-granular silica gel (KSKG trademark) under the action of microwave radiation (MWR) was studied. Microwave irradiation leads not only to the formation of solid decomposition products UO3, UO2(OH)NO3, and their hydrates in the pores of KSKG granules, but also to the accumulation of gaseous NOx and H2O. The presence of NOx in KSKG pores leads to the HNO3 formation in the course of washing of sorbent granules with water. This prevents hydrolysis of uranyl nitrate and the formation of UO2(OH)2·H2O in KSKG pores. The washout of uranium with water and HClO4 solutions from the KSKG fraction containing the products of the decomposition of 2 and 10 g of the initial UO2(NO3)2·6H2O under the action of MWR (hereinafter denoted as KSKG-P-I) was studied. Upon the ~7-day contact of the solid and liquid phases at the total ratio S : L = 1 : 20, from 5 to 14% of U passed into the aqueous phase from KSKG-P-I samples obtained in experiments with 10 and 2 g of UO2(NO3)2·6H2O, respectively. In the course of repeated treatments of KSKG-P-I with water, pH of the wash water increased from 3 to 6, owing to the removal of NOх from KSKG pores. Then an insoluble phase of uranyl hydroxide UO2(OH)2·H2O, which can also be presented as hydroxylated uranium trioxide UO3·2H2O, was being gradually formed from the solution obtained by the treatment of KSKG-P-I with water. On treatment of KSKG-P-I with HClO4 solutions (pH 1–2), virtually all uranium species formed by MWR treatment of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions in the KSKG matrix dissolved (at the contact time of the solid and liquid phases of ~21 days, the amount of U that passed into HClO4 solutions is ~90%). The amount of the U form that is not extracted with HClO4 solutions and remains in KSKG granules is ~12% of its initial amount. The X-ray phase analysis suggests that the uranium species remaining in KSKG are silicate compounds formed by sorbent saturation with a uranyl nitrate solution and the subsequent MWR treatment.
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Radiation Physics


Matteo Ferrari et al.

Pages: 98-105

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.016

Received: 15 JUN 2018, Received revised: 4 NOV 2018, Accepted: 5 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

SPES is a new generation ISOL facility for the production of intense Radioactive Ion Beams by fission reactions at high rate. Two main topics related to the management of SPES as an intense neutron source are here discussed: the radiation resistance of polymeric components used for its construction and the residual activation of the system after machine shutdown. Radiation effects on elastomeric O-rings and lubricating grease are experimentally investigated to assure reliable operation of the facility and safe post-operation management. Experimental protocols have been developed to irradiate samples in a neutron and gamma facility of a TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor. Based on the results of post-irradiation mechanical tests, the most radiation-resistant products are selected. A case study is dedicated to the life prediction of the O-ring of a SPES gate valve. Moreover, extensive Monte Carlo calculations are performed to evaluate the residual radioactivity of the facility after operation. The outcomes represent useful inputs to plan inspection and maintenance during the facility shutdown.
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Radiation in Medicine


V.N. Panteleev, A.E. Barzakh, L.Kh. Batist, D.V. Fedorov, V.S. Ivanov, S.A. Krotov, P.L. Molkanov, S.Yu. Orlov, M.D. Seliverstov, Yu.M. Volkov

Pages: 106-109

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.017

Received: 16 MAY 2018, Received revised: 28 SEP 2018, Accepted: 26 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40–80 MeV proton beams with a current of 100–200 μA has been constructed and put into operation at PNPI NRC KI (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”) [1]. Presently the system has been worked out for the simultaneous beam transportation to the target stations for radioisotope production and to the medical box for the treatment of ophthalmologic diseases. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. For this purpose the project of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (Radio Isotopes at the cyclotron C-80) has been developed. The mass-separator application at one of the three target stations of RIC-80 will allow on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity radioisotopes. Among them are radionuclides 223,224Ra and 225Ac which decay by the alpha particle emission and are used for therapy of malignant tumors at the early stage of their appearance. The results of target and ion source tests for the production of radioisotopes 223,224Ra and 225Ac by different methods, including one with the mass-separator use, are presented.
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Radiation Protection


Sonja Petkovska, Margarita Ginovska, Hristina Spasevska, Yasin Acarbas

Pages: 110-116

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.018

Received: 3 APR 2018, Received revised: 11 SEP 2018, Accepted: 12 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

Technological improvements in radiotherapy machines using small fields (SF) have improved mechanical accuracy and stability, as well as dosimetric control. Small fields are nonstandard radiation fields, for which reference dosimetry cannot be reliably performed using the existing protocols. Field size definition, difficulties of accurate measurements, modeling of SF dose calculations in Treatment Planning System (TPSs), calibration protocol establishing, reference condition achievements, are some of the challenges in SF Dosimetry. Small and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) field dosimetry can be very complex – large perturbation effects could make a significant impact on reference dosimetry procedures and output factors. Comparison between different detectors provides valuable information. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences of dose profiles and depth dose measured in the same conditions for standard and non-standard radiation fields. Measurements are performed using detectors with different sensitive volumes. Beam quality as well as symmetry and flatness are analyzed. Results from the measurements show that the differences for SF are obvious at the edge of the profiles and in the penumbra region, as well as in the build-up region into depth dose curves. To avoid the uncertainties, for static SF where reference conditions cannot be met and for IMRT fields where delivery conditions are far removed from calibration conditions, the new formalism should be implemented.
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Radiation Detectors


L. Diehl, L.Wiik-Fuchs, R. Mori, M. Hauser, K. Jakobs, U. Parzefall

Pages: 117-122

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.019

Received: 14 JUN 2018, Received revised: 28 SEP 2018, Accepted: 26 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

In 2025 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to the High Luminosity (HL-)-LHC. This will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with very high fluences and long operation time. Sensors have been designed to survive severe radiation damage as demonstrated by electrical tests and charge collection measurements. Besides that, it is important to predict and understand the long-term evolution of the sensor properties. In this paper, detailed studies on the annealing behavior of ATLAS 12 strip detectors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated with fluences between 5·1013 and 2·1015 neq/cm2 are presented. During the annealing time at 23°C and 58.5°C systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out until breakdown or the appearance of charge multiplication. The phenomenon of charge multiplication in high irradiated sensors after long annealing times has been investigated with respect to dependencies on temperature and bias voltage cycling. The difference in the annealing behavior between the two temperatures has been analyzed and compared to similar measurements on n-type sensors and with a theoretical model. For sensors with fluences below 3·1014 neq/cm2 the effective doping concentration could be extracted from the impedance measurements and was compared with a theoretical model. The results show that ATLAS12 sensors anneal similarly to the previously designed ATLAS07 and the behavior is well described by the theoretical model. Nevertheless, a significant difference in the time constant of the beneficial and reverse annealing with respect to previous n-type sensors has been reported.

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Radiation Detectors


D. Hits et al.

Pages: 123-127

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.020

Received: 15 JUN 2018, Received revised: 10 OCT 2018, Accepted: 26 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The radiation tolerance of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies has been studied in beam tests and is presented. We also present beam test results on signal size as a function of incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 20 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured using readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition, the functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices is demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high rate/high intensity experiments.

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Radiation Effects


Ç. Yazgan, M. B. Demirköz, M. Yiğitoğlu, S. Niğdelioglu, P. Uslu, I. Efthymiopoulos

Pages: 128-132

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.021

Received: 15 JUN 2018, Received revised: 10 OCT 2018, Accepted: 26 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

METU-Defocusing Beam Line (METU-DBL) project aims to perform Single Event Effect (SEE) tests for space, nuclear and other applications. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) has a cyclotron which can accelerate protons up to 30 MeV kinetic energy at the Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF) mainly for radioisotope production and for research and development (R&D) purposes. In the facility, the stable proton beam current is variable between 0.1 µA to 1.2 mA and the beam size is nearly 1 cm x 1 cm. METU-DBL pre-test setup, which has been installed in the R&D room, enlarges the beam size with two quadrupole magnets and it reduces the proton flux with a collimator. The pretest setup beam size is about 10 cm x 10 cm and the beam flux is 108 p/cm2/s. The first tests of electronic cards, detectors and also commercial and experimental solar cells have been performed using this setup. Also, the final configuration of METU-DBL is now under construction to provide a beam according to ESA ESCC No. 25100 standard. MCNP Monte Carlo codes were used for the calculations of secondary particles (neutrons, gammas) and residuals.
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E.A. Shishkina, V.I. Zalyapin, Yu.S. Timofeev, M.O. Degteva, M. Smith, B. Napier

Pages: 133-137

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.022

Received: 2 JUL 2018, Received revised: 12 NOV 2018, Accepted: 20 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The estimation of dose factors for active marrow exposed to bone-seeking beta-emitters, such as 89Sr and 90Sr/90Y (0 – 1.5 MeV and 0 – 2.4 MeV, respectively), is an important task of bone dosimetry. Monte Carlo simulations of electron – photon transport to calculate the active marrow doses are based on the geometrical modeling of bone structures. The model geometry should consist of accurate descriptions of spongiosa fine structure and cortical bone thickness (because of the high probability of low energy electron emission) as well as descriptions of bone macro-dimensions (because the maximum electron path length in spongiosa is about 5-9 mm). New computer tomography (CT) -based methods are widely applied to develop computational dosimetric phantoms. The advantage of the CT-based method is in high realism of the description of complex bone shape as well as in the possibility of an adequate description of bone microstructure with µCT. However, the method has a number of disadvantages, viz.: (1) the method is laborious and expensive; (2) the use of cadavers is associated with organizational difficulties; (3) one cadaver –based model can be non-representative and does not allow estimation of the uncertainties associated with individual variability of human anatomy; (4) cortical bone thickness is fixed based on the CT, for which resolution is worse than the measurand; (5) in practice, the limitation in voxel resolution of the computational phantom often results in narrowing down the strong points given by µCT because of an inadequate representation of the microstructure. Moreover, high individual variability of bone shapes and macro-dimensions negates the advantages of the above-mentioned high realism. The aim of the presented study is to elaborate the algorithm of parametric bone modeling, which allows for the generation of phantoms of hematopoietic bone segments based on known micro- and macro dimensions. We propose an approach that permits easy subdivision of bones into small segments, which may be described by simple-shape geometric figures with appropriate voxel resolution. Spongiosa structure (presented by a stochastic rod-like model and calibrated by literature-derived bone volume-to-total volume ratio) is covered by a homogenous cortical layer. All parameters of the proposed cadaver-free model can be obtained from the literature on morphometry and hystomorphometry. Moreover, the parametric modeling allows the simulation of individual variability of bone-specific dimensions.

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Environmental Chemistry


Isak Aliji, Julijana Velevska, Metodija Najdoski, Atanas Tanuševski

Pages: 138-142

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.023

Received: 29 MAY 2018, Received revised: 21 OCT 2018, Accepted: 18 NOV 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

The chemical bath deposition method was employed for the preparation of iron hexacyanoferrate (FeHCF), cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoHCF), and tungsten oxide (WO3) films. The films were deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. For practical electrochromic investigations, an electrochromic test device (ECTD) was constructed consisting of FeHCF (or CoHCF) films as the working electrode, together with WO3 film as the counter electrode, in 1 M KCl aqueous solution as an electrolyte. Visible transmittance spectra were recorded in-situ. The output integral of the spectral intensity and the spectral modulation, as well as saved energy, were calculated by taking the solar irradiance spectrum AM 1.5 for a normal illumination on the ECTD and its transmittance data in the bleached and colored states.
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Biomedical Engineering


R. Pop-Iliev, W. Y. Pao, P. Karimipour-Fard, G. Rizvi

Pages: 143-146

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2018.02.024

Received: 14 JUN 2018, Received revised: 9 OCT 2018, Accepted: 26 OCT 2018, Published online: 27 DEC 2018

This paper focuses on 3-dimensional non-destructive characterization of the morphologies of integral-skin cellular polymeric composites using X-ray Microtomography. Rapid Rotational Foam Molding (RRFM) is a polymer processing technology that is capable of creating composites with intricate shapes that have a foamed core surrounded by an integral solid skin layer (similar to the structure of a bone). The analyzed specimens were extracted from composites processed in RRFM having a solid skin made of polypropylene (PP) grades combined with foamed cores made of both polyethylene (PE) and PP grades by implementing a suitable chemical blowing agent (CBA) in extrusion. The resulting cellular structures pertaining to the foamed core and the near-skin area were visualized and their morphological quality was evaluated in terms of cell size distribution and cell density. The stress-strain behavior and 3-dimensional structural changes were monitored and characterized with in-situ compression testing.
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